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Hybrid fiber, coaxial, and copper designs deliver an `out-of-the-field` method

via Donald T. GALL and MITCH SHAPIRO

options abound for operators who choose between latest off-the-shelf electronics as necessary to personalize a network design.

What if you have a "greenfield" chance to present switched telephony or "plain old television provider" to create incremental revenues with out sacrificing your core company? Your existing cable plant is in tremendously decent condition and supplying nice video to your subscribers, however you simply don`t accept as true with a hybrid fiber/coaxial (HFC) mobilephone system will offer the reliability you require. in addition, other issues being equal, if you present telephony you might need to persist with proven technology with as little chance as viable.

nowadays`s state-of-the-art telecommunications techniques (both mobile company and cable television) have been vastly enhanced with the advent of transport fiber optics. despite the fact, there are nonetheless colossal roadblocks to constructing a single budget friendly communications network that does every little thing neatly. Twisted-pair networks combat with bandwidth and switching wants, while coaxial networks battle with reliability and powering considerations. each networks individually have provided functional solutions of their respective core agencies, however there are technical and fiscal hurdles to conquer to create a truly integrated answer that can provide voice, statistics, and video. while it`s desirable to be on the cutting edge of technology, it`s usually most useful to be just in the back of the blade!

below the correct situations, a community that makes use of both twisted-pair and coaxial technologies as an integrated gadget combines the better of both worlds and can be simply the ticket. This option architecture provides twisted-pair distribution with a special perspective with the aid of keeping the number of copper pairs small to in the reduction of weight on the overlashed coaxial plant and reduce construction and splicing labor. while this approach is more within your means than traditional full copper telephony strategies, its enterprise mannequin simplest works if a big percentage of the switched telephony enterprise can also be captured. The coaxial element can also be a standard HFC format--an evolutionary, not progressive, method to convergence, adaptations of which had been effectively deployed within the united kingdom, and components of Europe.

A hybrid fiber/ coaxial/copper (HFCC) architecture uses present off-the-shelf items to construct a enormously reliable and least expensive network that overcomes the inherent issues of typical single network techniques. it's capable of offering all existing applications corresponding to analog and digital video, high-pace analog and digital subscriber loop (DSL) statistics features in addition to future applications like demand facet administration (DSM) and video on demand (VOD).

A key to deploying an HFCC-like structure is to avoid designing a community from the "monopoly" standpoint. with out the advantage of one hundred% penetration or a guaranteed expense of return on capital, a hit community operators need to find tips on how to set up expertise incrementally to fit their company plans. It is that this ability to installation electronics best as vital that makes the HFCC model a possible method.

The transport component of the combined HFCC plant is fiber optics, which gives the vital bandwidth and low losses to permit the deployment of services across large areas. The exact network design will depend on the particular person groups` marketing strategy and the size of the serving areas. on the node serving enviornment, fiber is terminated into each a coaxial bus and a twisted-pair network.

What makes this strategy unique is the methodology during which the coaxial and twisted-pair plant life are mixed into a seamless start platform for narrowband and broadband features.

The HFCC community topology comprises a standard HFC network that serves node sizes ranging from four hundred to 750 buildings with a twisted-pair copper overlay network serving the same variety of homes or more. The copper may also prolong beyond cable-tv node boundaries to make productive use of the telephony electronics. The change between this topology and a traditional telephony overlay community as developed within the united kingdom is the variety of copper pairs deployed. in the HFCC design, the copper cable measurement is restricted to 50 or seventy five pairs emanating from any node in any route. The small measurement of the copper bundles permits overlashing with out fear of overloading the present strand.

in the HFCC network, telephony nodes are deployed using a typical Synchronous Optical network interface at the OC-1 (fifty one-Mbit/sec) price either in a folded or time-honored ring structure. Single-fiber, fifty one-Mbit/sec interfaces can be used if redundancy is not preferred. each and every host digital terminal (HDT) would at the beginning be configured to supply up to 28 DS-1 capabilities in a position to 672 nonconcentrated plain historic phone provider lines. As new nodes come on line, extra HDTs may also be added in blocks of 28 non-targeted DS-1s. As an alternative, enabling concentration of below 2:1 can double the variety of DS-1s available through utility.

network design is completed by using breaking down the provider area into 24 home pockets that are potential areas for smaller remote digital terminals tons like the normal fiber-in-the-loop designs of the mobile trade. firstly, as much as forty eight subscribers might be served directly from the node using the fashioned 50-pair cables and a minimally configured far off terminal. As penetration increases vastly in any element of the serving enviornment, far flung terminals may be placed at those predetermined areas. This method allows for the re-use of all but two pairs of the 50-pair cable feeding that pocket with a T1 circuit. If the serving enviornment has massive numbers of distinctive living contraptions, far off terminals will also be positioned on the time of construction to provide shared tenant capabilities for the total advanced or constructing.

The HFCC design, reckoning on density, is customarily able to give 10% to fifteen% penetration of each leg leaving the node before faraway terminals are required. The faraway terminals will also be powered in the neighborhood from the cable plant`s 60V AC, or with 120V AC; in either case, each and every unit has eight hours of battery backup, which satisfies the need to keep the equal energy requirements as a native-change service (LEC).

the most attractive aspect of this strategy is that the operator controls both the coaxial plant and copper plant, which offers the pliability to make use of the combined community to its fullest talents. as an instance, considering the fact that the operator controls the copper, he can take excessive-speed records off the network before it is routed through a swap, thereby presenting a connectionless route for records that isn't subject to the issues of swap loading. cellphone return cable modems may also be provided at a plenty lessen charge as a result of traffic that previously passed during the LEC`s network can now be terminated without delay at the operator`s headend.

when you consider that the copper plant is all new with brief loops between the node and consumer (continually lower than 5000 ft), it is capable of deliver basically any telephony or data carrier that LEC competitors need to present together with asymmetric DSL and high-pace DSL. Off-the-shelf plug-in cards permit an operator to supply "custom, comfy records functions" when shoppers desire them, in its place of the three or 4 weeks or besides the fact that children lengthy it takes to find and repair the incumbent cell business`s current 40-yr-historical plant.

From a company perspective, the HFCC community will also be an impressive tool. because it is structured as an "overlay" network, it can be divided into two physically separated plant life for joint-mission applications. as an example, an operator may additionally want to kind a three way partnership with a corporation to deliver plain old cellphone provider or data functions to organizations and residential subscribers. With this network, the operator has the means to constitution the joint venture to encompass only the copper plant, which would not affect its core company cable-television plant. This alternative provides flexibility in setting up purposes that enrich the base line. option telephony suppliers have in mind and prefer accepted cellphone copper technologies on account of their confirmed reliability. q

This basic HFCC design suggests digital places for further cellphone penetration.

Donald T. Gall has been concerned with the cable-television trade for the final 28 years. He became an integral part of the team at Time Warner that developed the primary functional functions of analog fiber and hfc networks. he's presently a consultant with Pangrac & buddies (Port Aransas, TX) and might be reached at dgall814@ Shapiro has been monitoring and analyzing the boom of fiber-based networks and markets for over 10 years. he is at present a consultant with Pangrac & friends, specializing in analysis and evaluation concentrated on aggressive broadband markets and applied sciences. He will also be reached at mitchshapiro @

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