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We are an experienced manufacturer of optical fiber cable network ftth optical fiber cable structure optical fiber cable types cable of optical fiber twisted pair coaxial cable and optical fiber fiber optic cable single mode fiber optic cable in China.There is no doubt, our team are professional to ensure the quality of our products.We offer twisted pair coaxial cable and optical fiber products with high quality and reasonable price.As a trustworthy products manufacturer, we have the confidence of improving your business.Regardingtwisted pair coaxial cable and optical fiber, we will provide you with the best service.Wish you a smooth business and make more money.

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Hybrid fiber, coaxial, and copper designs deliver an `out-of-the-container` method

by way of Donald T. GALL and MITCH SHAPIRO

alternate options abound for operators who choose between present off-the-shelf electronics as crucial to customise a community design.

What when you have a "greenfield" probability to present switched telephony or "undeniable historical television carrier" to create incremental revenues devoid of sacrificing your core enterprise? Your current cable plant is in quite first rate circumstance and offering pleasant video to your subscribers, however you simply don`t trust a hybrid fiber/coaxial (HFC) cell gadget will offer the reliability you require. moreover, different things being equal, if you present telephony you may need to persist with confirmed know-how with as little chance as possible.

today`s state-of-the-artwork telecommunications programs (each mobile enterprise and cable television) were vastly greater with the advent of transport fiber optics. despite the fact, there are nonetheless large roadblocks to building a single low-priced communications network that does every little thing neatly. Twisted-pair networks battle with bandwidth and switching wants, whereas coaxial networks combat with reliability and powering concerns. both networks in my view have supplied practical options in their respective core organizations, however there are technical and monetary hurdles to conquer to create a truly built-in answer that offers voice, data, and video. while it`s alluring to be on the innovative of know-how, it`s usually top-rated to be just at the back of the blade!

beneath the correct situations, a network that uses both twisted-pair and coaxial technologies as an built-in system combines the better of both worlds and might be simply the ticket. This choice structure offers twisted-pair distribution with a distinct viewpoint by using keeping the number of copper pairs small to reduce weight on the overlashed coaxial plant and cut back building and splicing labor. while this strategy is extra within your budget than usual full copper telephony methods, its enterprise model most effective works if a big percentage of the switched telephony company may also be captured. The coaxial portion will also be a typical HFC format--an evolutionary, now not innovative, method to convergence, variations of which had been efficaciously deployed in the uk, and ingredients of Europe.

A hybrid fiber/ coaxial/copper (HFCC) architecture uses existing off-the-shelf items to construct a incredibly professional and affordable network that overcomes the inherent issues of generic single network processes. it's in a position to delivering all current applications reminiscent of analog and digital video, high-velocity analog and digital subscriber loop (DSL) information services in addition to future functions like demand aspect management (DSM) and video on demand (VOD).

A key to deploying an HFCC-like structure is to evade designing a network from the "monopoly" perspective. devoid of the advantage of a hundred% penetration or a assured cost of return on capital, successful community operators have to find ways to installation expertise incrementally to healthy their business plans. It is this ability to installation electronics most effective as obligatory that makes the HFCC mannequin a viable method.

The transport portion of the combined HFCC plant is fiber optics, which provides the crucial bandwidth and low losses to permit the deployment of services throughout massive areas. The genuine network design will depend on the individual businesses` business plan and the dimension of the serving areas. at the node serving area, fiber is terminated into each a coaxial bus and a twisted-pair community.

What makes this method pleasing is the methodology by which the coaxial and twisted-pair plant life are mixed right into a seamless beginning platform for narrowband and broadband functions.

The HFCC community topology comprises a standard HFC community that serves node sizes ranging from four hundred to 750 homes with a twisted-pair copper overlay network serving the same variety of buildings or greater. The copper might also extend beyond cable-tv node boundaries to make effective use of the telephony electronics. The difference between this topology and a standard telephony overlay network as developed in the uk is the number of copper pairs deployed. in the HFCC design, the copper cable dimension is limited to 50 or 75 pairs emanating from any node in any path. The small size of the copper bundles makes it possible for overlashing devoid of concern of overloading the latest strand.

in the HFCC community, telephony nodes are deployed using a typical Synchronous Optical network interface at the OC-1 (51-Mbit/sec) fee both in a folded or generic ring structure. Single-fiber, 51-Mbit/sec interfaces can also be used if redundancy isn't desired. every host digital terminal (HDT) would at first be configured to deliver up to twenty-eight DS-1 services in a position to 672 nonconcentrated undeniable ancient cell service lines. As new nodes come on line, additional HDTs may also be delivered in blocks of 28 non-centred DS-1s. As an choice, permitting concentration of below 2:1 can double the variety of DS-1s available through application.

network design is achieved with the aid of breaking down the carrier enviornment into 24 domestic pockets that are advantage places for smaller remote digital terminals plenty like the typical fiber-in-the-loop designs of the cell business. in the beginning, up to 48 subscribers can be served without delay from the node the use of the customary 50-pair cables and a minimally configured far off terminal. As penetration increases tremendously in any portion of the serving enviornment, far off terminals may be placed at those predetermined places. This method enables the re-use of all but two pairs of the 50-pair cable feeding that pocket with a T1 circuit. If the serving area has significant numbers of multiple dwelling gadgets, faraway terminals can be positioned on the time of building to supply shared tenant services for the total complicated or building.

The HFCC design, reckoning on density, is customarily able to supply 10% to fifteen% penetration of every leg leaving the node earlier than faraway terminals are required. The far off terminals can be powered in the community from the cable plant`s 60V AC, or with 120V AC; in both case, each unit has eight hours of battery backup, which satisfies the deserve to maintain the equal energy requirements as a native-trade carrier (LEC).

probably the most attractive factor of this strategy is that the operator controls each the coaxial plant and copper plant, which offers the flexibility to use the mixed community to its fullest knowledge. as an instance, on account that the operator controls the copper, he can take excessive-pace statistics off the community before it's routed through a change, thereby presenting a connectionless course for information that isn't area to the complications of change loading. telephone return cable modems will also be provided at a a lot decrease payment as a result of traffic that previously passed through the LEC`s community can now be terminated at once on the operator`s headend.

considering that the copper plant is all new with short loops between the node and client (continually less than 5000 feet), it's capable of deliver just about any telephony or records service that LEC opponents ought to offer together with asymmetric DSL and excessive-pace DSL. Off-the-shelf plug-in playing cards permit an operator to deliver "customized, secure records functions" when purchasers desire them, as an alternative of the three or 4 weeks or although long it takes to locate and restoration the incumbent telephone enterprise`s present 40-year-historical plant.

From a company standpoint, the HFCC network may also be a magnificent tool. because it is structured as an "overlay" network, it may also be divided into two bodily separated plant life for joint-assignment functions. for example, an operator can also need to kind a three way partnership with an organization to give simple historical phone provider or statistics functions to groups and residential subscribers. With this community, the operator has the ability to structure the three way partnership to encompass handiest the copper plant, which would no longer have an effect on its core business cable-television plant. This alternative gives flexibility in establishing purposes that enhance the final analysis. choice telephony providers keep in mind and prefer customary mobile copper applied sciences on account of their confirmed reliability. q

This primary HFCC design suggests digital areas for further telephone penetration.

Donald T. Gall has been concerned with the cable-television business for the last 28 years. He turned into a vital part of the team at Time Warner that developed the first functional functions of analog fiber and hfc networks. he is presently a consultant with Pangrac & friends (Port Aransas, TX) and can be reached at dgall814@ Shapiro has been tracking and analyzing the increase of fiber-based mostly networks and markets for over 10 years. he's at present a specialist with Pangrac & acquaintances, specializing in analysis and evaluation concentrated on aggressive broadband markets and technologies. He may also be reached at mitchshapiro @

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