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We are an experienced manufacturer of optical fiber cable network optical fiber cable types cable of optical fiber fiber optic cable single mode fiber optic cable 24 core fiber optic cable in China.Our team has a good professional quality and a strong sense of responsibility.Our factory is professional and experienced that can produce excellent quality twisted pair coaxial cable and optical fiber, and of course in reasonable price.We have the confidence that our products can help your business.We provide you with high quality products, but also will provide you with satisfactory service.Best business partner, I wish you every success in your work.

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We are an experienced manufacturer of optical fiber cable network optical fiber cable types cable of optical fiber fiber optic cable single mode fiber optic cable 24 core fiber optic cable in China.Our team has a good professional quality and a strong sense of responsibility.Our factory is professional and experienced that can produce excellent quality twisted pair coaxial cable and optical fiber, and of course in reasonable price.We have the confidence that our products can help your business.We provide you with high quality products, but also will provide you with satisfactory service.Best business partner, I wish you every success in your work.

twisted pair coaxial cable and optical fibertwisted pair coaxial cable and optical fiber

Hybrid fiber, coaxial, and copper designs supply an `out-of-the-container` approach

by Donald T. GALL and MITCH SHAPIRO

alternatives abound for operators who choose from latest off-the-shelf electronics as vital to customise a network design.

What if in case you have a "greenfield" probability to present switched telephony or "plain ancient television carrier" to create incremental revenues with out sacrificing your core enterprise? Your current cable plant is in highly first rate circumstance and supplying high-quality video to your subscribers, however you simply don`t agree with a hybrid fiber/coaxial (HFC) phone device will offer the reliability you require. moreover, other things being equal, in case you present telephony you would need to persist with proven technology with as little chance as feasible.

today`s state-of-the-paintings telecommunications systems (each mobilephone company and cable tv) were vastly greater with the introduction of transport fiber optics. youngsters, there are nevertheless colossal roadblocks to building a single competitively priced communications network that does every little thing well. Twisted-pair networks struggle with bandwidth and switching wants, whereas coaxial networks combat with reliability and powering issues. each networks in my view have offered useful solutions in their respective core agencies, however there are technical and financial hurdles to beat to create a truly integrated answer that supplies voice, records, and video. whereas it`s alluring to be on the innovative of expertise, it`s always ideal to be just at the back of the blade!

below the right circumstances, a network that makes use of each twisted-pair and coaxial applied sciences as an integrated gadget combines the best of each worlds and might be simply the ticket. This alternative architecture gives twisted-pair distribution with a different perspective via protecting the variety of copper pairs small to reduce weight on the overlashed coaxial plant and reduce building and splicing labor. while this strategy is extra cost-efficient than normal full copper telephony methods, its enterprise model only works if a big percentage of the switched telephony enterprise can also be captured. The coaxial element can be a standard HFC structure--an evolutionary, no longer progressive, strategy to convergence, variations of which have been correctly deployed within the uk, and parts of Europe.

A hybrid fiber/ coaxial/copper (HFCC) structure makes use of current off-the-shelf products to construct a tremendously respectable and low cost network that overcomes the inherent complications of conventional single community tactics. it is in a position to offering all existing purposes akin to analog and digital video, excessive-velocity analog and digital subscriber loop (DSL) records capabilities in addition to future purposes like demand facet management (DSM) and video on demand (VOD).

A key to deploying an HFCC-like architecture is to steer clear of designing a network from the "monopoly" standpoint. devoid of the advantage of a hundred% penetration or a guaranteed expense of return on capital, a hit network operators must discover methods to deploy know-how incrementally to healthy their business plans. It is that this capability to deploy electronics only as necessary that makes the HFCC model a conceivable approach.

The transport portion of the mixed HFCC plant is fiber optics, which provides the integral bandwidth and low losses to enable the deployment of services throughout tremendous areas. The precise network design will rely on the particular person companies` marketing strategy and the size of the serving areas. at the node serving enviornment, fiber is terminated into each a coaxial bus and a twisted-pair community.

What makes this approach entertaining is the methodology during which the coaxial and twisted-pair plant life are combined into a seamless start platform for narrowband and broadband capabilities.

The HFCC community topology includes a traditional HFC network that serves node sizes ranging from four hundred to 750 buildings with a twisted-pair copper overlay community serving the same number of homes or greater. The copper might also prolong past cable-tv node boundaries to make productive use of the telephony electronics. The change between this topology and a normal telephony overlay network as developed in the uk is the variety of copper pairs deployed. in the HFCC design, the copper cable measurement is limited to 50 or 75 pairs emanating from any node in any route. The small dimension of the copper bundles allows overlashing with out fear of overloading the current strand.

in the HFCC community, telephony nodes are deployed the usage of a typical Synchronous Optical community interface on the OC-1 (51-Mbit/sec) cost either in a folded or ordinary ring architecture. Single-fiber, 51-Mbit/sec interfaces may also be used if redundancy is not preferred. each host digital terminal (HDT) would firstly be configured to deliver up to 28 DS-1 functions capable of 672 nonconcentrated undeniable historic telephone carrier traces. As new nodes come on line, further HDTs will also be added in blocks of 28 non-targeted DS-1s. As an alternative, enabling awareness of lower than 2:1 can double the number of DS-1s attainable via application.

network design is completed through breaking down the carrier enviornment into 24 domestic pockets that are advantage areas for smaller remote digital terminals plenty just like the traditional fiber-in-the-loop designs of the telephone industry. initially, up to 48 subscribers could be served directly from the node the usage of the original 50-pair cables and a minimally configured remote terminal. As penetration increases enormously in any element of the serving enviornment, faraway terminals should be positioned at those predetermined areas. This method permits the re-use of all however two pairs of the 50-pair cable feeding that pocket with a T1 circuit. If the serving area has massive numbers of varied dwelling gadgets, faraway terminals can also be placed at the time of building to deliver shared tenant features for the complete complicated or building.

The HFCC design, counting on density, is usually in a position to deliver 10% to fifteen% penetration of each leg leaving the node earlier than far flung terminals are required. The far off terminals can also be powered in the neighborhood from the cable plant`s 60V AC, or with 120V AC; in either case, every unit has eight hours of battery backup, which satisfies the deserve to keep the identical vigour requirements as a native-exchange service (LEC).

essentially the most appealing factor of this strategy is that the operator controls both the coaxial plant and copper plant, which gives the pliability to use the combined community to its fullest capabilities. as an example, in view that the operator controls the copper, he can take excessive-speed statistics off the community before it's routed via a swap, thereby presenting a connectionless direction for information that is not subject to the problems of switch loading. mobilephone return cable modems can be offered at a a whole lot decrease fee as a result of traffic that previously handed through the LEC`s community can now be terminated at once on the operator`s headend.

due to the fact that the copper plant is all new with brief loops between the node and consumer (always under 5000 feet), it is able to provide virtually any telephony or information provider that LEC rivals need to present including uneven DSL and excessive-pace DSL. Off-the-shelf plug-in cards permit an operator to give "custom, at ease records features" when valued clientele desire them, as an alternative of the three or 4 weeks or youngsters long it takes to find and fix the incumbent cellphone enterprise`s existing forty-12 months-historic plant.

From a business perspective, the HFCC network may also be an impressive device. since it is structured as an "overlay" network, it can also be divided into two physically separated plants for joint-task applications. as an example, an operator may also are looking to kind a joint venture with an organization to give plain historical cellphone service or statistics features to companies and residential subscribers. With this network, the operator has the capability to structure the three way partnership to encompass simplest the copper plant, which might not affect its core business cable-tv plant. This alternative provides flexibility in developing applications that increase the bottom line. option telephony providers understand and like conventional mobile copper technologies because of their proven reliability. q

This fundamental HFCC design indicates electronic locations for further mobile penetration.

Donald T. Gall has been involved with the cable-television business for the closing 28 years. He become an essential component of the group at Time Warner that developed the primary practical applications of analog fiber and hfc networks. he is at present a consultant with Pangrac & associates (Port Aransas, TX) and may be reached at dgall814@ Shapiro has been monitoring and inspecting the boom of fiber-primarily based networks and markets for over 10 years. he's at present a specialist with Pangrac & associates, specializing in research and analysis focused on competitive broadband markets and technologies. He can be reached at mitchshapiro @

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