Principle of laser communication
Laser communication is a communication method that uses laser light to transmit information. Laser is a new type of light source, which has the characteristics of high brightness, strong directionality, good monochromaticity, and strong coherence. According to different transmission media, it can be divided into atmospheric laser communication and optical fiber communication. Atmospheric laser communication is laser communication using the atmosphere as a transmission medium. Optical fiber communication is a communication method that uses optical fibers to transmit optical signals.
The components of the laser communication system include two parts: sending and receiving. The sending part mainly includes a laser, an optical modulator and an optical transmitting antenna. The receiving part mainly includes an optical receiving antenna, an optical filter, and a photodetector. The information to be transmitted is sent to the optical modulator connected to the laser, and the optical modulator modulates the information on the laser and sends it out through the optical transmitting antenna. At the receiving end, the optical receiving antenna receives the laser signal and sends it to the optical detector. The optical detector converts the laser signal into an electrical signal, which becomes the original information after amplification and demodulation.
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Optical modules are optoelectronic devices that perform photoelectric and electro-optical conversion. The optical module is also called a fiber optic transceiver, which is mainly used for photoelectric conversion of signals. At the transmitting end, the electrical signal of the device is converted into an optical signal, and at the receiving end, the optical signal is restored to an electrical signal. The optical module is composed of a laser at the transmitting end, a detector at the receiving end, and electronic devices for data encoding/decoding.
The principle of optical fiber communication is: at the sending end, the transmitted information (such as voice) must first be converted into an electrical signal, and then modulated onto the laser beam emitted by the laser, so that the intensity of the light changes with the amplitude (frequency) of the electrical signal. And send it out through the optical fiber; at the receiving end, the detector converts the optical signal into an electrical signal after receiving it, and restores the original information after demodulation.